There are two technical reasons for that. Actually that's not quite true, there's more but these two are the ones that will bother a lot of people.
The first is that we'd kill KDE performance over network. So everyone who uses X/KDE over network would suddenly realize that their setup became unusable. Their sessions would suddenly send images for absolutely everything all the time... As you can imagine institutions/schools/companies who use KDE exactly in this way wouldn't be particularly impressed if suddenly updating their installations would render them unusable.
The second reason is that I kinda like being able to read and sometimes even write text. Text tends to be pretty helpful during the process of reading. Especially things like emails and web browsing get a lot easier with text. I think a lot of people shares that opinion with me. To render text we need fonts, in turn those are composed of glyphs. To make text rendering efficient, we need to cache the glyphs. When running with the X11 engine we render the text using Xrender, which means that there's a central process that can technically manage all the glyphs used by applications running on a desktop. That process is the Xserver. With the raster engine we take Xserver out of the equation and suddenly every single application on the desktop needs to cache the glyphs for all the fonts they're using. This implies that every application suddenly uses megs and megs of extra memory. They all need to individually cache all the glyphs even if all of them use the same font. It tends to work ok for languages with a few glyphs e.g. 40+ for english (26 letters + 10 digits + a few punctuation marks). It doesn't work at all for languages with more. So unless it will be decided that KDE can only be used by people with languages whose alphabets contain about 30 letters or less, then I'd hold off with making raster engine the default.
While the latter problem could be solved with some clever shared memory usage or forcing Xrender on top of raster engine (actually I shouldn't state that as a fact, I haven't looked at font rendering in raster engine in a while and maybe that was implemented lately), it's worth noting that X11 engine is simply fast enough to not bother over a few frames in this way or another. Those few frames that you'd gain would mean unusable KDE for others.
And if you think that neither of the above two points bothers you and you'd still want to use raster engine by default you'll have to understand that I just won't post instructions on how to do that here. If you're a developer, you already know how to do it and if not there are trivial ways of finding that out from the Qt sources. If you're not a developer then you really should stick globally to the defaults and can simply test the applications with the -graphicssystem switches.